Reformation humanism essay

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Humanism, Historical Consciousness, and Philosophies of the Reformation

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However few copies of Calvin's writings were available before midth century. The Reformation in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the establishment of a church along reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish reformation. The Reformation Parliament of repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act , forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith.

It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise , who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter Mary, Queen of Scots then also Queen of France. Although Protestantism triumphed relatively easily in Scotland, the exact form of Protestantism remained to be determined.

The 17th century saw a complex struggle between Presbyterianism particularly the Covenanters and Episcopalianism. The Presbyterians eventually won control of the Church of Scotland , which went on to have an important influence on Presbyterian churches worldwide, but Scotland retained a relatively large Episcopalian minority.


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Besides the Waldensians already present in France, Protestantism also spread in from German lands, where the Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots ; this eventually led to decades of civil warfare. Though not personally interested in religious reform, Francis I reigned — initially maintained an attitude of tolerance, in accordance with his interest in the humanist movement.

This changed in with the Affair of the Placards. In this act, Protestants denounced the Catholic Mass in placards that appeared across France, even reaching the royal apartments. During this time as the issue of religious faith entered into the arena of politics, Francis came to view the movement as a threat to the kingdom's stability. Following the Affair of the Placards, culprits were rounded up, at least a dozen heretics were put to death, and the persecution of Protestants increased. Beyond the reach of the French kings in Geneva, Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his native land including the training of ministers for congregations in France.

As the number of Protestants in France increased, the number of heretics in prisons awaiting trial also grew. As an experimental approach to reduce the caseload in Normandy, a special court just for the trial of heretics was established in in the Parlement de Rouen. These courts came to known as " La Chambre Ardente " "the fiery chamber" because of their reputation of meting out death penalties on burning gallows.

Despite heavy persecution by Henry II, the Reformed Church of France , largely Calvinist in direction, made steady progress across large sections of the nation, in the urban bourgeoisie and parts of the aristocracy , appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution, came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the s.

This established the preconditions for a series of destructive and intermittent conflicts, known as the Wars of Religion. The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II in , which began a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown. Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August , when the Catholic party killed between 30, and , Huguenots across France. The wars only concluded when Henry IV , himself a former Huguenot, issued the Edict of Nantes , promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions.

Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau , which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Catholicism the sole legal religion of France, leading some Huguenots to live as Nicodemites. In the late 17th century, ,—, Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. A separate Protestant community, of the Lutheran faith, existed in the newly conquered — province of Alsace , its status not affected by the Edict of Fontainebleau.

In the early 16th century, Spain had a different political and cultural milieu from its Western and Central European neighbors in several respects, which affected the mentality and the reaction of the nation towards the Reformation. Spain, which had only recently managed to complete the reconquest of the Peninsula from the Moors in , had been preoccupied with converting the Muslim and Jewish population of the newly conquered regions through the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition in The rulers of the nation stressed political, cultural, and religious unity, and by the time of the Lutheran Reformation, the Spanish Inquisition was already 40 years old and had the capability of quickly persecuting with any new movement that the leaders of the Catholic Church perceived or interpreted to be religious heterodoxy.

This led to a Counter-Reformation in Spain in the s. During the s, the Spanish Inquisition had created an atmosphere of suspicion and sought to root out any religious thought seen as suspicious. As early as , the Pope had written a letter to the Spanish monarchy warning against allowing the unrest in Northern Europe to be replicated in Spain. Between and , printing presses in Spain were tightly controlled and any books of Protestant teaching were prohibited. Between and , Protestantism in Spain was still able to gain followers clandestinely, and in cities such as Seville and Valladolid adherents would secretly meet at private houses to pray and study the Bible.

Notable reformers included Dr. Under Philip II , conservatives in the Spanish church tightened their grip, and those who refused to recant such as Rodrigo de Valer were condemned to life imprisonment. In May , sixteen Spanish Lutherans were burnt at the stake: fourteen were strangled before being burnt, while two were burnt alive. In October another thirty were executed. Spanish Protestants who were able to flee the country were to be found in at least a dozen cities in Europe, such as Geneva , where some of them embraced Calvinist teachings.

Those who fled to England were given support by the Church of England. Upon the arrival of the Protestant Reformation, Calvinism reached some Basques through the translation of the Bible into the Basque language by Joanes Leizarraga. Molinism presented a soteriology similar to Protestants within the Roman Catholic Church. During the Reformation era Protestantism was unsuccessful in Portugal, as its spread was frustrated for similar reasons to those in Spain.

The Relationship between Humanism and the Reformation

The Reformation in the Netherlands, unlike in many other countries, was not initiated by the rulers of the Seventeen Provinces , but instead by multiple popular movements, which in turn were bolstered by the arrival of Protestant refugees from other parts of the continent. While the Anabaptist movement enjoyed popularity in the region in the early decades of the Reformation, Calvinism, in the form of the Dutch Reformed Church , became the dominant Protestant faith in the country from the s onward. In the early 17th century internal theological conflict within the Calvinist church between two tendencies of Calvinism, the Gomarists and the liberal Arminians or Remonstrants , resulted in Gomarist Calvinism becoming the de facto state religion.

The first two Lutheran martyrs were monks from Antwerp, Johann Esch and Heinrich Hoes who were burned at the stake when they would not recant. Harsh persecution of Protestants by the Spanish government of Philip II contributed to a desire for independence in the provinces, which led to the Eighty Years' War and, eventually, the separation of the largely Protestant Dutch Republic from the Catholic-dominated Southern Netherlands present-day Belgium. Luxembourg , a part of the Spanish Netherlands, remained Catholic during the Reformation era because Protestantism was illegal until Much of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary adopted Protestantism during the 16th century.

They found this in the teaching of Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther. The spread of Protestantism in the country was assisted by its large ethnic German minority, which could understand and translate the writings of Martin Luther. While Lutheranism gained a foothold among the German- and Slovak-speaking populations, Calvinism became widely accepted among ethnic Hungarians. In the more independent northwest, the rulers and priests, protected now by the Habsburg Monarchy , which had taken the field to fight the Turks, defended the old Catholic faith. They dragged the Protestants to prison and the stake wherever they could.

Such strong measures only fanned the flames of protest, however. Protestants likely formed a majority of Hungary's population at the close of the 16th century, but Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted a majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. A significant Protestant minority remained, most of it adhering to the Calvinist faith. In the Transylvanian Diet of Turda decreed the free practice of both the Catholic and Lutheran religions, but prohibited Calvinism. Ten years later, in , the Diet extended this freedom, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expulsion for his religion".

Between and , there was a series of anti-Habsburg uprisings calling for equal rights and freedom for all Christian denominations, with varying success; the uprisings were usually organised from Transylvania. The Habsburg-sanctioned Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The center of Protestant learning in Hungary has for some centuries been the University of Debrecen.

Founded in , the University was situated in an area of Eastern Hungary under Ottoman Turkish rule during the s and s, being allowed Islamic toleration and thus avoiding Counter-Reformation persecution. Transylvania in what is today's Romania was a "dumping ground for undesirables" by the Habsburg monarchy.

People who did not conform to the will of the Habsburgs and the leaders of the Catholic Church were forcibly sent there. Centuries of this practice allowed diverse Protestant traditions to emerge in Romania, including Lutheranism , Calvinism and Unitarianism. Calvinism was popular among Hungarians who inhabited the southwestern parts of the present-day Ukraine. Their descendants are still there, see the Sub-Carpathian Reformed Church.

The first Protestant congregation was founded in Brest-Litovsk in the Reformed tradition , and the Belarusian Evangelical Reformed Church exists today. His desire for an annulment of his marriage was known as the King's Great Matter. Ultimately Pope Clement VII refused the petition; consequently it became necessary for the King to assert his lordship over the church in his realm to give legal effect to his wishes. This challenge to Papal supremacy resulted in a breach with the Roman Catholic Church. By , the Irish Parliament had agreed to the change in status of the country from that of a Lordship to that of Kingdom of Ireland.

Unlike similar movements for religious reform on the continent of Europe, the various phases of the English Reformation as it developed in Ireland were largely driven by changes in government policy, to which public opinion in England gradually accommodated itself. However, a number of factors complicated the adoption of the religious innovations in Ireland; the majority of the population there adhered to the Catholic Church. However, in the city of Dublin the reformation took hold under the auspices of George Browne , Archbishop of Dublin. Word of the Protestant reformers reached Italy in the s but never caught on.

Its development was stopped by the Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition and also popular disinterest. Not only was the Church highly aggressive in seeking out and suppressing heresy, but there was a shortage of Protestant leadership. No one translated the Bible into Italian; few tracts were written. No core of Protestantism emerged. The few preachers who did take an interest in "Lutheranism", as it was called in Italy, were suppressed or went into exile to northern countries where their message was well received.

As a result, the Reformation exerted almost no lasting influence in Italy, except for strengthening the Catholic Church and pushing for an end to ongoing abuses in Counter-Reformation. Some Protestants left Italy and became outstanding activists of the European Reformation, mainly in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth e.

Renaissance and the Reformation Essay example - Words | Bartleby

In , the Waldensians , who had been already present centuries before the Reformation, aligned themselves and adopted the Calvinist theology. The Waldensian Church survived in the Western Alps through many persecutions and remains a Protestant church in Italy. The various groups had their own juridical systems. On the eve of the Protestant Reformation, Christianity held the predominate position within the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and Catholicism received preferential treatment at the expensive of the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox.

The Reformation first entered Poland through the German-speaking lands in the country's north. The Duchy of Prussia , a vassal of the Polish Crown ruled by the Teutonic Knights, emerged as a key center of the movement, with numerous publishing houses issuing not only Bibles, but also catechisms, in German, Polish and Lithuanian. In the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights secularized the territory, became Lutheran, and established Lutheranism as the state Church.

Lutheranism found few adherents among the other peoples of the two countries. Calvinism became the most numerous Protestant group because Calvin's teachings on the role of the state within religion appealed to the nobility known as szlachta , mainly in Lesser Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At that time, Mennonites and Czech Brothers came to Poland, the former settled in the Vistula Delta where they used their agricultural abilities to turn parts of the delta into plodders and the latter settled mostly in Greater Poland around Leszno.

Later on, Socinus and his followers emigrated to Poland. Originally the Reformed Church in Poland included both the Calvinists and the Anti-trinitarians also known as the Socinians and the Polish Brethren ; however, they eventually split due to an inability to reconcile their divergent views on the Trinity. The Commonwealth was unique in Europe in the 16th century for its widespread tolerance confirmed by the Warsaw Confederation. This agreement granted religious toleration to all nobles: peasants living on nobile estates did not receive the same protections.

In , the Brest Bible was published see also Bible translations into Polish. Sigismund, who was also the King of Sweden until deposed, was educated by Jesuits in Sweden before his election as King of Poland-Lithuania. During his reign, he selected Catholics for the highest offices in the country. This created resentment amongst the Protestant nobility; however, the country did not experience a religiously motivated civil war. Despite concerted efforts, the nobility rejected efforts to revise or recind the Confederation of Warsaw, the nobility protected this agreement.

The Deluge , an year period of almost continual warfare, marked the turning point in attitudes. Despite these wars against Protestant, Orthodox, and Muslim neighbors, the Confederation of Warsaw held with one notable exception. In the aftermath of the Swedish withdrawal and truce, attitudes throughout the nobility Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant turned against the Polish Brethren. In the Polish Brethren were forced to leave the country. They were permitted to sell their immovable property and take their movable property; however, it is still unknown whether they received fair-market value for their lands.

In , the Sejm banned apostasy from Catholicism to any other religion, under penalty of death. Finally, in , the Silent Sejm banned non-Catholics from becoming deputies of the Parliament. The strategy the Catholic Church took towards reconverting Poland-Lithuanian differed from its strategy elsewhere. The unique government Poland-Lithuania was a republic where the citizen nobility owned the state meant the king could not enforce a religious settlement even he if so desired.

Instead the Catholic Church undertook a long and steady campaign of persuasion. An important component of the Catholic Reformation in Poland-Lithuania education. Numerous colleges and universities were set up throughout the country: the Jesuits and Piarists were important in this regard but there were contributions of other religious orders such as the Dominicans. While in the middle of the 16th century the nobility mostly sent their sons abroad for education the new German Protestant universities were important in this regard by the mids the nobility mostly stayed home for education.

The quality of the new Catholic schools was so great that Protestants willingly sent their children to these schools. Through their educational, many nobles became appreciative of Catholicism or out-right converted. Even though the majority of the nobility were Catholic circa , Protestants remained in these lands and pockets of Protestantism could be found outside the German-speaking lands of the former Poland-Lithuania into the 20th century.

Kot, Stanislas. Translated by Earl Morse Wilbur. Tazbir, Janusz. Translated by A. Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, A History of Polish Christianity. Cambridge, U. Gudziak, Borys A. Harvard Series in Ukrainian Studies, Teter, Magda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Nowakowska, Natalia. The Reformation was very insignificant in what is now Moldova and saw single congregations of Hussitism and Calvinism being founded across Besserabia. During the Reformation era, Moldova was repeatedly invaded. The first books in Slovene, Catechismus and Abecedarium , were written by Trubar.

At one point in history [ when? Calvinism was popular among the Hungarians who inhabited the southernmost parts of what is now Slovakia. Back then, Slovakia used to be a part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Lutheranism reached northern parts of the country. Vojvodina turned partially Lutheran. Motivating factors in their decision to adopt aspects of the Reformation included the historical rivalry and mistrust between the Greek Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches along with their concerns of Jesuit priests entering Greek lands in their attempts to propagate the teachings of the Counter-Reformation to the Greek populace.

He subsequently sponsored Maximos of Gallipoli 's translation of the New Testament into the Modern Greek language and it was published in Geneva in Upon Lucaris's death in , the conservative factions within the Eastern Orthodox Church held two synods: the Synod of Constantinople and Synod of Jassy criticizing the reforms and in the convocation led by Dositheos , they officially condemned the Calvinistic doctrines. The Reformation spread throughout Europe beginning in , reaching its peak between and The greatest geographical extent of Protestantism occurred at some point between and The Thirty Years' War began in and brought a drastic territorial and demographic decline when the House of Habsburg introduced counter-reformational measures throughout their vast possessions in Central Europe.

There is no universal agreement on the exact or approximate date the Reformation ended. Various interpretations emphasize different dates, entire periods, or argue that the Reformation never really ended. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation era conflicts are termed the European wars of religion. Some [ who? The treaty also effectively ended the Papacy's pan-European political power. Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his bull Zelo Domus Dei.

European sovereigns, Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict. The following outcomes of the Reformation regarding human capital formation, the Protestant ethic , economic development , governance , and "dark" outcomes have been identified by scholars: [32]. Margaret C. Jacob argues that there has been a dramatic shift in the historiography of the Reformation. Until the s, historians focused their attention largely on the great leaders and theologians of the 16th century, especially Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli.

Their ideas were studied in depth. However, the rise of the new social history in the s look at history from the bottom up, not from the top down. Historians began to concentrate on the values, beliefs and behavior of the people at large. She finds, "in contemporary scholarship, the Reformation is now seen as a vast cultural upheaval, a social and popular movement, textured and rich because of its diversity. Partly due to Martin Luther's love for music, music became important in Lutheranism. The study and practice of music was encouraged in Protestant-majority countries. Songs such as the Lutheran hymns or the Calvinist Psalter became tools for the spread of Protestant ideas and beliefs, as well as identity flags.

Similar attitudes developed among Catholics, who in turn encouraged the creation and use of music for religious purposes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Reformation disambiguation. Not to be confused with Reform movement. Schism within the Christian Church in the 16th century. Ninety-five Theses. Contributing factors. Theologies of seminal figures. Protestant Reformers. By location. Major political leaders. Catholic Church Council of Trent. Politics of the Counter-Reformation. Anti-Protestantism Criticism. Charles V Ferdinand II. Political and religious conflicts.

Art and literature. Painting and sculpture Northern Mannerism Lutheran art. German Renaissance Art Swedish art. English art Woodcuts. Art conflicts Beeldenstorm. Elizabethan Metaphysical poets Propaganda. Welsh Scottish Anglo-Irish German. Faroese Norwegian Swedish Finnish. Icelandic Dutch Renaissance and Golden Age. Folklore of the Low Countries. Morality History Tragedy Revenge. Forms Hymnody of continental Europe. Music of the British Isles Hymn tune. Lutheran chorale Lutheran hymn. Anglican church music Exclusive psalmody.

Anglican chant Homophony vs. Reformed worship Calvin's liturgy. Formula missae Deutsche Messe. Liturgical Struggle Ecclesiastical Latin. Lutheran and Anglican Mass in music. Cyclic mass vs. Paraphrase mass. Roman vs. Sarum Rites. Sequence retained by Lutherans, mostly banned by Trent. First and Second Lutheran hymnals. First Wittenberg hymnal Ausbund.

Book of Common Prayer Metrical psalters. Book of Common Order Souterliedekens. Genevan Psalter Scottish Psalter.

The Renaissance Reformation Essay

Conclusion and commemorations. Reformation Day Lutheran Anglican. Major branches. Minor branches. Broad-based movements. Charismatic movement Evangelicalism Neo-charismatic movement. Other developments. Related movements. House churches Nondenominational Christianity Spiritual Christianity. Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection. Bible Foundations. History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Related topics. See also: History of Protestantism. Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz Utraquist Hussitism was allowed there alongside the Roman Catholic confession.

By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now. Martin Luther posted the Ninety-five Theses in Main article: Radical Reformation. Main article: Martin Luther. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German.

June Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality.

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For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June July Main article: Bohemian Reformation. Main article: Jan Hus. Main article: Hussites. Main article: Reformation in Switzerland. Main articles: John Calvin and Republic of Geneva. Main article: Reformation in Sweden. Main article: Icelandic Reformation. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: Church of England and Anglicanism. Main articles: Puritanism , English Dissenters , Independent religion , Nonconformism , English Presbyterianism , Ecclesiastical separatism , and 17th-century denominations in England.

Main article: Michael the Deacon. The New Testament translated by Enzinas, published in Antwerp Main article: Protestantism in Portugal. Main article: History of religion in the Netherlands. Main article: Protestantism in Luxembourg. Main article: Protestantism in Ukraine. Main article: Reformation in Ireland. Further information: Reformation in Italy and Girolamo Savonarola. Main article: Protestantism in Serbia. His manuscript is considered to be a cornerstone in Basque literature, and a pioneering attempt towards Basque language standardization.

European Reformation: Heinemann Advanced History : Heinemann Educational. The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. Sixteenth Century Journal X:1, Journal of Ecclesiastical History. The History of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press.

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